How to Install MongoDB Debian 11/10: 3 Easy Steps


Install MongoDB Debian | Hevo Data

Most companies prefer using Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS) for storing and retrieving information. There are various advantages of using a DBMS. It offers better Data Integration, security, and transfer options. Developers can produce quick solutions to Database queries with it. If you are in search of a tool that will help create a standardized way to use files, store data safely, and improve data accessibility, you are at the right place. 

MongoDB is a NoSQL Database released in 2009 that supports a flexible schema approach. It helps developers to build applications and sites quickly without spending much time configuring a Database. One can also store both structured and unstructured data using MongoDB. Many Developers Install MongoDB Debian because it offers a flexible and fast environment. With the help of Install MongoDB Debian, users can build scalable applications and use other Linux features.

Developers use Install MongoDB Debian because it offers a wide range of tools with the advantage of using an open-source Linux interface. In this article, you will learn how to Install MongoDB Debian in simple steps and how to use MongoDB after the process of installing MongoDB Debian.

Table Of Contents

What is MongoDB?

MongoDB is an open-source Relational Database Management program used for storing large data sets and efficient management. It is also referred to as a NoSQL database because it does not store any information in tabular form. Managed and developed by MongoDB.Inc, since 2009, the software has become highly beneficial and popular among high-profile companies.

MongoDB supports multiple languages, comprises excellent features, and provides high performance and automatic scaling. In simple terms, MongoDB is a document-oriented platform released under the Server Side Public License (SSPL) that supports a different mechanism to store and retrieve high-volume data.

The program uses collections and documents to retrieve information rather than a table-like relational structure. Another benefit of choosing MongoDB over other leading Database tools is they perform automatic failover, conduct queries, and offer horizontal scaling. Also, it supports multi-document ACID transactions, load balancing, data replication, server-side JavaScript execution, indexing, and other features.

One can create multiple Databases and collections using the MongoDB Database. It mostly stores all the data in the format of BSON documents and helps in the quick deployment and development process. MongoDB is a simple and easy to configure program. Companies like Facebook, Adobe, Nokia, eBay, and Google prefer MongoDB for storing large data sets.  Learn more about the benefits of MongoDB and its purpose.

To know more about MongoDB, click here.

What are the key features of MongoDB?

MongoDB has several extraordinary capabilities that make it widely usable and popular. Let’s take a look at MongoDB’s top technical features:

Supports Adhoc Queries

One of the biggest benefits that make MongoDB stand out is its performance when handling ad hoc queries on data that are usually updated in real-time. MongoDB can perform field searches, range searches, as well as regular expression queries.


Indexing is an important feature of a Database for improving search speed and performance of search queries. Without indexing, a database would be forced to scan documents one by one to select those that match the query which would be inefficient. However, if each query has an appropriate index, user requests can be quickly executed by the server. With MongoDB indexing is possible with any field or key, in a document sustaining complex access patterns to datasets.

Schema-Less Database

Classic relational databases use a schema to define every functional element, including tables, rows views, indexes, and relationships. In MongoDB, one collection maintains different documents. It has no schema so there can be numerous documents in a collection, having distinct keys, and these keys might be unique. A schemaless database, like MongoDB, is more flexible as it does not carry these up-front constraints, mapping to a more ‘natural’ database.

To learn more about MongoDB, visit here.

What are the Benefits of MongoDB?

Developers can now store, manage, and retrieve information more easily during the application development process. Also, the purpose of releasing MongoDB was to improve data accessibility and ensure consistency and proper data management. Have a look at some other benefits of using MongoDB, listed below.

  • Quick to Learn: Even beginners can quickly learn how to perform actions using the start guide. It is one of the simple and easy-to-use NoSQL database programs.
  • Cost-Effective DBMS: MongoDB is a free, open-source relational Database management program that supports various languages, including C, C++, Go, Java, PHP, Python, etc. It is one of the cost-effective solutions preferred by most companies to store large data sets.
  • No Need to Install a Primary Key: Setting up a primary key with MongoDB is not essential as compared to other RDBMS solutions. In the case of MongoDB, the fields act as a primary key.
  • Schema-less: MongoDB is a non-relational database that stores and uses collections and documents to retrieve data. Unlike other Databases, you do not require creating a table or pre-defined schema with MongoDB. The popular tools also support creating explicit schemas.
  • Code-native data access: All the collected data is stored in a JSON-like document that can be changed over time. Also, this feature makes it easy for users to retrieve information in the data structure using any language.
  • Powerful Querying and Analytics Solution: MongoDB supports various features that help Developers to perform complex queries and conduct analytics pipelines.
  • Comprises a Change-friendly design: If you are looking for a system that can easily change the data structure of a site or application, you are in luck: MongoDB is a change-friendly design. Instead of spending excessive time and energy on designing efficient processes, we recommend MongoDB. Developers can write new information at an hour without affecting their operations.
  • Quick Performance: As most of the data is stored in the RAM, it gets easier for Developers to directly collect information and execute queries. Also, its features like replication and gridFS help enhance data availability. As a result, there are high chances of delivering faster performance and accurate indexes over other relational databases.
  • MongoDB is easy to Set-up: MongoDB supports a modern JavaScript framework. Thus, it is easy to install, set up, and execute the DBMS. It also supports quick learning and training options for beginners.
  • Scalability: MongoDB supports the sharding process, which makes it easy for Developers to handle large datasets and their distribution work. As a result, it also helps expand the storage capacity. Unlike other SQL Databases, MongoDB uses horizontal scalability. Here one can generate clusters with real-time replication.
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What are the Steps to Install MongoDB Debian?

In this section, you will learn about how to Install MongoDB Debian. The process to Install MongoDB Debian is short and easy. All you need is a brief understanding of the terminal to Install MongoDB Debian.

The steps to Install MongoDB Debian are listed below:

Step 1: Install MongoDB Debian Dependencies

  • First, Install MongoDB Debian dependencies using the following command:
apt-get install gnupg2 wget -y
  • By default, the MongoDB package is not included in the Debian default repository. So you will need to add and Install MongoDB Debian’s official repository to APT. Run the following command in the terminal to add the MongoDB official repository.
wget -qO - | apt-key add - echo "deb buster/mongodb-org/4.4 main" | tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb-org-4.4.list
  • Next, update the repository cache using the command given below:
apt-get update -y
  • Next, install the MongoDB using the following command:
apt-get install mongodb-org -y
  • Once you Install the MongoDB Debian package successfully, verify the MongoDB version using the following command:
mongod --version
  • You will get the MongoDB version in the following output:
db version v4.4.12
Build Info: {
    "version": "4.4.12",
    "gitVersion": "51475a8c4d9856eb1461137e7539a0a763cc85dc",
    "openSSLVersion": "OpenSSL 1.1.1k  25 Mar 2021",
    "modules": [],
    "allocator": "tcmalloc",
    "environment": {
        "distmod": "debian10",
        "distarch": "x86_64",
        "target_arch": "x86_64"

Step 2: Configure MongoDB 

By default, MongoDB is configured to access without any password. For security reasons, it is always recommended to secure MongoDB with a username and password.

  • To enable the MongoDB authentication, edit the MongoDB main configuration file:
nano /etc/mongod.conf
  • Add the following lines:
   authorization: enabled
  • Save the file and close it, after that restart the MongoDB service to apply the changes.
systemctl restart mongod
  • Next, you will need to create an admin user to perform the administrative task. First, connect to the MongoDB with the following command:
  • Once you are connected, run the following command to create a Database called admin:
> use admin
  • Next, create an admin user and set the password with the following command:
> db.createUser(
     user: "mongoadmin", 
     pwd: "mongopassword", 
     roles: [ { role: "userAdminAnyDatabase", db: "admin" } ]
  • Next, exit the MongoDB shell with the command given below:

Step 3: Using MongoDB

Here, you will go through the steps to how to interact with MongoDB. 

  • To connect to the MongoDB shell using the admin username and password, run the following command:
mongo --port 27017 --authenticationDatabase "admin" -u "mongoadmin" -p
  • After you connected successfully, it will provide the similar output shown below:
MongoDB shell version v4.4.12
Enter password: 
connecting to: mongodb://
Implicit session: session { "id" : UUID("4151a2d3-2108-4ec6-8fd0-6c02b4b402b6") }
MongoDB server version: 4.4.12
  • To exit from the MongoDB shell, use the command given below:
  • To start the MongoDB service, use the command given below:
systemctl start mongod
  • To restart the MongoDB service, use the command given below:
systemctl restart mongod
  • To stop the MongoDB service, use the command given below:
systemctl stop mongod
  • To check the status of the MongoDB service, use the command given below:
systemctl status mongod
  • You will get the following output:
mongod.service - MongoDB Database Server
     Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/mongod.service; disabled; vendor preset: enabled)
     Active: active (running) since Mon 2022-02-07 06:09:30 UTC; 1min 32s ago
   Main PID: 2702 (mongod)
     Memory: 80.2M
        CPU: 1.714s
     CGroup: /system.slice/mongod.service
             └─2702 /usr/bin/mongod --config /etc/mongod.conf

Feb 07 06:09:30 debian systemd[1]: Started MongoDB Database Server.
  • To remove the MongoDB package from your system, run the following command:
apt-get remove mongodb-org
  • Check the available databases in MongoDB
> db
  • To create a database in MongoDB: Switching to a non-existing database and specifying the database name is how MongoDB creates databases. The specified name is used as the new database’s name.
use mongotestdb

Sample Output:

> use mongotestdb
switched to db mongotestdb
  • Check the available databases in MongoDB: You can now start adding data to your database. We’re going to make a table for user information.
   { "F_Name" : "fname",
     "L_NAME" : "lname",
     "ID_NO" : "12345",
     "AGE" : "19",
     "TEL" : "+254654671"

In the MongoDB database, show collections/tables:

show collections

Sample Output:

> show collections
  • To create a user with read and write privileges: Let’s make a database called testdatabase and give a user named testuser read and write privileges.
use testdatabase

Then, for the newly created database, assign permissions (testdatabase)

     user: 'testuser',
     pwd: 'P@ssWord',
     roles: [ { role: 'readWrite', db: 'testdatabase' } ]
  • To use a specific database in MongoDB: Run this command in MongoDB if you want to use a specific database.
use database-name
  • To create an admin for a specific database in MongoDB: Let us make use of the database that has been created (testdatabase)
use testdatabase

Create a database administrator:

    user: 'testadmin',
    pwd: 'P@ssW0rd',
    roles: [ { role: 'userAdmin', db: 'testdatabase' } ]
  • To Create an Overall Admin in MongoDB: If you didn’t create an overall admin at first, this step will work. However, we have already created an overall admin with the name monguser in this guide.
use newdatabase

Assign the following privileges and a password.

user: "Your Username",
pwd: passwordPrompt(), // or cleartext password
roles: [ { role: "userAdminAnyDatabase", db: "newdatabase" }, "readWriteAnyDatabase" ]

Create a password that you prefer. Then, as we did before, you can connect to the user.

How to change MongoDB Debian default path?

/var/lib/mongo is the default location for storing MongoDB data. This directory, however, can be changed in the following manner.

  • The MongoDB service should be stopped.
sudo systemctl stop mongod.service
  • Create a new directory for MongoDB data.
Create a new directory for MongoDB data.

Set MongoDB’s ownership of the directory.

sudo chown -R mongodb:mongodb /data/computingforgeeks/mongo
  • Delete the old directory and replace it with the new one. Use sudo apt install rsync to set up Rsync.
sudo rsync -av /var/lib/mongodb /data/computingforgeeks/mongo
  • Rename the old directory for backup.
sudo mv /var/lib/mongodb /var/lib/mongodb.bak
  • To the new location, create a symbolic link.
sudo ln -s /data/computingforgeeks/mongo /var/lib/mongodb

Restart the MongoDB service after making these changes. MongoDB will begin storing its data in the newly-created directory.

sudo systemctl start mongod.service


In this article, you learned about MongoDB and the steps to Install MongoDB Debian. You also read about the benefits of using MongoDB and how MongoDB Debian is a perfect choice for Developers for building a development environment. MongoDB is a document-oriented database that stores and collects information in compressed BSON files. Developers can easily retrieve the collected documents and information in JSON format as per the need. Furthermore, installing MongoDB Debian helps in building applications that deliver quick performance with its scaling capabilities and flexible document schemas. 

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Hitesh Jethva
Technical Content Writer, Hevo Data

Hitesh is a skilled freelance writer in the data industry, known for his engaging content on data analytics, machine learning, AI, big data, and business intelligence. With a robust Linux and Cloud Computing background, he combines analytical thinking and problem-solving prowess to deliver cutting-edge insights. Hitesh leverages his Docker, Kubernetes, AWS, and Azure expertise to architect scalable data solutions that drive business growth.

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