DynamoDB is a scalable database management system provided by Amazon that helps users store data as per their requirements. Amazon allows users to query DynamoDB data using DynamoDB API or Command Line Interface (CLI). But, CLI or API cannot handle all query operations in DynamoDB like joins, aggregation functions (MAX, MIN, COUNT), and more.

However, DynamoDB data can be queried using the MySQL Server to manage such operations. Amazon enables users to query DynamoDB data using MySQL with the Amazon DynamoDB ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) driver to connect DynamoDB MySQL.

With the Amazon DynamoDB driver, DynamoDB can connect to any application having ODBC connectivity.

In this tutorial, you will learn to connect DynamoDB MySQL Server using the Amazon DynamoDB ODBC driver and through Hevo, a data replication tool.


  • Basic understanding of types of databases

What is Amazon DynamoDB?

DynamoDB MySQL: DynamoDB logo
Image credit: aws

Developed in 2021, Amazon DynamoDB is a fully managed NoSQL database. It means that AWS will take care of all the administrative tasks, including hardware provisioning, installation setup, replications, and software patching, performed by the database admin to maintain the database.

Tables in DynamoDB are schema-less, meaning information does not have a fixed structure like in relational database systems. As a result, it can handle semi-structured and unstructured data effectively. Despite the complexity of storing semi-structured and unstructured data, DynamoDB allows users to create databases that can store and retrieve any data.

With such extensive database storage, users can provide services to more traffic.

The data entries in DynamoDB tables are called items. The items in the DynamoDB table should consist of at least one primary key or unique key that differentiates it from the others in the DynamoDB table. And if you want to add data to an item, it should be a maximum of 400KB.

However, if you want to add more than 400kb of data to the item, you need to use S3 buckets. 

Features of Amazon DynamoDB

  • Key-value and Document Data model: Amazon DynamoDB supports both key-value and document data models. The key-value pairs form a non-relational database that uses simple keys to map values for storing and retrieving data. Document data models use internal structures to fetch information.
  • Datatypes: Amazon DynamoDB supports different data types like Scalar, Multi-valued, and Document data types. While Scalar data types are Number, String, Boolean, and Null, which means they can have only one value, Multi-valued datatypes consist of String Set, Number Set, and Binary Set. Multi-valued data types are stored in sets, meaning the values in this data are unique.
  • The Data Model in Amazon DynamoDB: The Data Model in Amazon DynamoDB consists of tables, which consist of items. Items are like rows in tables with a unique primary key used for finding an exact item in the tables. Items, in turn, have attributes. Attributes in DynamoDB are like key and value pairs inside tables.
  • DynamoDB Streams: DynamoDB Streams are used to capture data modification events in DynamoDB tables in real-time. It is also stored in the order in which the events occurred. A stream record represents every event. When you enable a stream on the DynamDB table, DynamoDB Streams writes a record whenever any of the below events occurs:
    • A new item is added to the table.
    • An item is updated.
    • An item is deleted from the table.
  • Scalability: DynamoDB automatically spreads the data and traffic for tables over a sufficient number of servers to handle throughput and storage requirements. DynamoDB will add or remove storage automatically to align with your data.
  • Data Partitions: DynamoDB stores data in partitions. Primary keys in the DynamoDB database are used to uniquely identify items and are also used to store data in partitions. The primary key consists of two components. i.e., the Partition key (Hash Attribute) and the Sort Key (Range Attribute). Sort Key is used to store data in partitions. It is useful when the Partition key is not unique. Items with the same partition keys are stored in the same partitions. Sort keys are used to sort data on the same partitions. To insert the items with the primary key in DynamoDB, DynamoDB uses a hash function. For example, consider the below table:
DynamoDB MySQL: primary key in database
Image Source: Self
  • If you want to store the above data in DynamoDB, it is stored in partitions. Using a hash function, you can insert the data with primary key 100 to DynamoDB. This primary key value (100) will be fed to the hash function. The hash function will generate the partition number based on the primary key. And therefore, it will store the item in the data partition.
  • Secondary indexes: Secondary indexes are used for fast query performance in DynamoDB. They consist of partition keys and sort keys. The partition key and sort key make up the primary key. The data is stored on partitions based on these primary keys. There are two types of indexes:
    • First is Global Secondary indexes (GSI), where the partition and sort keys are different from the base table.
    • For Local Secondary Indexes (LSI), partition keys are the same as the base tables, but the sort keys differ. LSI does not get its partitions, but they are stored along with the base tables. You can create a maximum of five GSI and LSI of the base tables. LSI needs to be added at the time of table creation only. They cannot be added after the table is created. Indexes are updated automatically when tables are modified. While creating an index, attributes to be copied has to be mentioned. If nothing is mentioned, DynamoDB will copy only the critical attributes of the base tables. It means indexes can contain additional attributes from the base tables apart from the index keys.
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What is MySQL?

DynamoDB MySQL: mysql logo
Image credit: mysql

MySQL is a relational database management system that organizes and stores data into rows and columns. Users can define, update, add, and query data using Structured Query Language (SQL). SQL is a specialized language for communicating between databases. 

MySQL is an open-sourced database owned by Oracle Corporation. MySQL Server works as a client-server model that supports a variety of backends and different Application Programming Interfaces (APIs).

MySQL is used for data warehousing, e-commerce, business applications, and more. Database-driven web applications like WordPress, Joomla, phpBB, and more use MySQL.

Connecting DynamoDB MySQL using ODBC Driver

Users can use the SQL Gateway from the ODBC driver for Amazon DynamoDB data to query Amazon DynamoDB data through the MySQL interface for connecting DynamoDB MySQL.

You can download the Amazon DynamoDB ODBC driver. The Amazon DynamoDB ODBC Driver enables you to connect with live data from Amazon DynamoDB from any application supporting ODBC connectivity like MySQL. Hence it is possible to connect DynamoDB MySQL.

Follow the below procedure to start the connection of DynamoDB MySQL, using the MySQL remoting service of the SQL Gateway, and work with live Amazon DynamoDB data in MySQL Workbench. SQL Gateway is a software that allows users to gain access to ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) data sources as virtual SQL Server or MySQL Server remotely. 

Step 1: Connecting to Amazon DynamoDB data

You can connect to Amazon DynamoDB MySQL using Accesskey, SecretKey, and Region. You can obtain your SecetKey and AccessKey using the security credentials of your Amazon Web Services account.

And when you log in to DynamoDB, your Region will be displayed in the upper left-hand corner.

Step 2: Configure the SQL Gateway

Follow the SQL Gateway Overview to connect Amazon DynamoDB as a virtual MySQL database. You can configure a MySQL remoting service that listens to MySQL requests from clients.

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Step 3: Query Amazon DynamoDB from MySQL Workbench

Follow the below steps to set up an Amazon DynamoDB MySQL connection:

  • Click to add a new MySQL connection in the MySQL Workbench.
  • Name the connection.
  • Set the Hostname, Port, and Username parameters to connect to the SQL Gateway.
  • Click on the ‘Store in Vault’ tab to set and store the password.
  • Click on the ‘Test Connection’ tab to ensure the connection is configured correctly. Click on OK, as shown below.
DynamoDB MySQL: setup new connection
Image credit: cdata

Follow the below steps to query the Amazon DynamoDB data inDynamoDB MySQL Connection

  • Open the connection for DynamoDB MySQL you created using the CData SQL Gateway for Amazon DynamoDB.
  • Click on the File → New Query tab.
  • Write a SQL query to retrieve Amazon DynamoDB data using the below command and verify the DynamoDB MySQL connection.
SELECT * FROM `CData AmazonDynamoDB Sys`.Lead;
DynamoDB MySQL: MySQL Workbench
Image credit: cdata

Using CData SQL Gateway, you have queried Amazon DynamoDB data from MySQL Workbench and connected DynamoDB MySQL.

Querying DynamoDB MySQL client has the below advantages.

  • Users can query by any field like the primary key, sort key, or index.
  • Users can use aggregate functions like AVG, COUNT, MAX, MIN, and more.
  • Users can delete and update multiple records (items) by any filter.
  • Users can also add multiple rows or copy tables in one command.

Connecting DynamoDB MySQL using Hevo

Hevo provides an Automated No Code Data Pipeline that helps you swiftly migrate DynamoDB to MySQL. You can set up a Data Warehouse managed by Hevo on the fly, as part of the Integration process.

The ingested data from the source is first stored in a Data Warehouse managed by Hevo and then loaded to the destination, such as Databases, or Business Applications.

Hevo’s fault-tolerant architecture will enrich and transform your data securely and load it to your destination without any assistance from your side.

You just need to follow 2 Steps to migrate your DynamoDB MySQL data:

Step 1: Configure Your DynamoDB Source

DynamoDB MySQL: Configure DynamoDB as a Source in Hevo
Image Source: Hevo

Step 2: Configure Your MySQL Destination

DynamoDB MySQL: Configure MySQL as a destination in Hevo
Image Source: Hevo

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  • Quick Setup: Hevo with its automated features, can be set up in minimal time. Moreover, with its simple and interactive UI, it is extremely easy for new customers to work on and perform operations.
  • Built To Scale: As the number of sources and the volume of your data grows, Hevo scales horizontally, handling millions of records per minute with very little latency.
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In this tutorial, you have learned to connect DynamoDB MySQL. While Amazon DynamoDB ODBC driver was used to communicate with the data from DynamoDB, CData SQL Gateway was used to provide MySQL access to the DynamoDB data.

You can also connect DynamoDB with external data sources like Amazon Redshift and Amazon EMR. Or, you can use a third-party tool like Hevo to do the heavy lifting for you.

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Share your experience of learning about DynamoDB MySQL connection in the comments section below.

Manjiri Gaikwad
Freelance Technical Content Writer, Hevo Data

Manjiri loves data science and produces insightful content on AI, ML, and data science. She applies her flair for writing for simplifying the complexities of data integration and analysis for solving problems faced by data professionals businesses in the data industry.

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