Tableau Hadoop Integration: Analyzing Big Data Simplified

on Big Data, Data Integration, Hadoop, Integration, Tableau • March 15th, 2022

Tableau Hadoop Connection | Cover

Hadoop has an open-source data management framework that allows organizations to store, organize, manage, and process petabyte-scale big data operations. Organizations often use Hive, a SQL engine built on top of the Hadoop framework for querying and batch-processing big data.

Since Hive is a part of the Hadoop environment, it helps developers to effectively analyze Hadoop data without using any third-party data processing tools. However, Hadoop does not have any built-in data visualization tools to create visual or graphical representations in the form of interactive dashboards that provide clear perceptions about data present in Hadoop.

To eliminate such limitations, Hadoop can be connected with external business intelligence tools to perform data visualizations for getting meaningful insights into Hadoop data. One such business intelligence tool is Tableau, which allows you to create graphical representations of data in the form of dashboards and reports. On connecting Hadoop to Tableau, you can seamlessly perform data visualization and analysis on Hadoop data.

In this article, you will learn about Tableau Hadoop Integration, and how to analyze big data using the connect.

Table of Contents

  1. Prerequisites
  2. What is Tableau?
  3. What is Hadoop?
  4. Tableau Hadoop Integration
  5. Conclusion

Prerequisites

A fundamental understanding of data visualization.

What is Tableau?

Tableau Hadoop | Tableau logo
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Developed by Pat Hanrahan, Christian Chabot, and Chris Stolte in 2003, Tableau is a business intelligence tool used for data analysis and visualization. With Tableau, you can create graphs, charts, and reports in the form of interactive dashboards, making it easier for anyone to understand the data patterns and trends over time.

Tableau can also connect with external data sources and third-party apps via drivers and connectors to deliver meaningful insights into a diverse range of datasets. Furthermore, the Tableau product suite comprises four products: Tableau Desktop, Tableau Online, Tableau Server, and Tableau Reader. Each of the product suites is designed to let users combine several data sources and produce data representations that can be shared internally across the organization or made publicly available.

What is Hadoop?

Tableau Hadoop | Hadoop Logo
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Developed by Doug Cutting and Mike Cafarella in 2005, Hadoop is an open-source software framework that allows you to store, manage, and process big data. In other words, Apache Hadoop is a java-based platform for storing and processing big data in a distributed computing environment. Since Hadoop is a distributed framework, you can scale data workloads across multiple servers or nodes to perform batch processing, thereby achieving high fault tolerance.

When one of the nodes fails accidentally, Hadoop tasks are automatically routed to other nodes due to its distributive computing capability. Hadoop also ensures data security by automatically duplicating and storing data in multiple locations. With Hadoop, you do not have to preprocess your data before storing it inside Hadoop servers, unlike traditional relational databases. Instead, you can save data in its raw form, including unstructured data such as text, photos, and videos. 

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Tableau Hadoop Integration

Connection Prerequisites For the Tableau Hadoop Connect

To set up the Tableau Hadoop Connect, you should readily have an active Google Cloud account and a pre-installed Tableau in your local machine.

Secondly, it’s also required to have already subscribed to Google services, such as Dataproc, Cloud SQL, Cloud Storage, and Network egress. Since these are billable services of Google Cloud Platform, you can use the pricing calculator to generate the cost estimate based on your project or business preferences. 

Creating a New Project

Tableau Hadoop  |  creating new project
Image Source: Original/Screenshot
  • Visit the project selector page of the Google Cloud Console and click on the “Select Project” button to select your existing project. You can also create a new project by clicking on the “Create Project” button.

Enabling APIs

Tableau Hadoop | Enabling API
Image Source: Original/Screenshot
  • For enabling APIs of Dataproc, Cloud SQL, and Cloud Key Management Services, you have to confirm your project by clicking on the “Next” button, as shown in the above image.
Tableau Hadoop  | Enabling API
Image Source: Original/Screenshot
  • Now, you are prompted to enable all three APIs of Cloud Dataproc, Cloud SQL Admin, and Cloud Key Management Service (KMS) API. Click on the “Enable” button to activate all three APIs.

Initializing the Cloud Environment

  • In your Google Cloud Console, activate the “Cloud Shell” that resembles the command prompt of your local machine and is used to run commands and queries.
  • In the Cloud shell, enter the environment variables along with the Project ID, region, and Zone of the Dataproc clusters, as given below.
export PROJECT_ID=$(gcloud info --format='value(config.project)')
export REGION=us-central1
export ZONE=us-central1-b

Setting Up a Service Account For the Tableau Hadoop Connect

  • Enter the command given below to create a new service account, which your cluster will use to access Google Cloud resources in the further steps.
gcloud iam service-accounts create cluster-service-account 
--description="The service account for the cluster to be authenticated as." 
--display-name="Cluster service account"
  • After setting up a service account, you should create a backend cluster for Dataproc and encrypt the passwords for Cloud Key Management Service. You can follow this GitHub repository to get relevant code for cluster creation and password encryption.

Creating a Sample Hive Table

Hive runs on top of the Hadoop architecture and provides an interface that resembles SQL frameworks for processing or querying the data. In other words, Hive is a SQL-based database that allows users to read, write, and manage petabytes of data. Since Hive is built on top of Apache Hadoop, it serves as a data warehousing service that reads, writes, and manages large datasets that are stored in Hadoop servers.

  • Enter the following command in the cloud shell to create a Cloud Store bucket for storing a sample Apache Parquet file. Apache Parquet is the column storage file format used by Apache Hadoop ecosystems, such as Pig, Spark, and Hive to support fast data processing, regardless of the choice of data processing framework.
gsutil mb -l ${REGION} gs://${PROJECT_ID}-hive
  • Now, copy the publicly available sample Parquet file into the newly created bucket.
gsutil cp gs://hive-solution/part-00000.parquet 
gs://${PROJECT_ID}-hive/dataset/transactions/part-00000.parquet
  • Then, connect to the master node of the Dataproc cluster by entering the following command.
gcloud compute ssh --zone ${ZONE} ${BACKEND_CLUSTER}-m
  • Now, a new command terminal is opened, where you have to enter the command given below to connect to the local Hive server.
beeline -u "jdbc:hive2://localhost:10000/;transportMode=http;httpPath=cliservice admin admin-password"
--hivevar PROJECT_ID=$(gcloud info --format='value(config.project)')
  • Now, execute the below command to create a new table using the Parquet file that you copied to the newly created bucket.
CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE transactions
(SubmissionDate DATE, TransactionAmount DOUBLE, TransactionType STRING)
STORED AS PARQUET
LOCATION 'gs://${PROJECT_ID}-hive/dataset/transactions';
  • Run a simple SQL query to check whether the table is created correctly.
SELECT * FROM transactions LIMIT 10;
  • After executing the above command, you will get an output in a tabular format on your command prompt.

Creating a Proxy Cluster

At this stage, you have to create a proxy cluster that provides Apache Knox initialization action. The Apache Knox gateway system gives a single point of authentication for external applications to access Apache Hadoop services and REST APIs in a cluster.

  • Initially, you have to clone the Dataproc “initialization-actions” GitHub repository by executing the following command.
git clone https://github.com/GoogleCloudDataproc/initialization-actions.git
  • Create the topology file that points to the backend cluster.
export KNOX_INIT_FOLDER=`pwd`/initialization-actions/knox
cd ${KNOX_INIT_FOLDER}/topologies/
mv example-hive-nonpii.xml hive-us-transactions.xml
  • Now, open the “hive-us-transactions.xml” with your preferred editor application. Add the user identity to Hive as “Sara,” which acts as the fictitious admin for the tutorial purpose.
<param>
   <name>hive.acl</name>
   <value>admin,sara;*;*</value>
</param>
  • In the next step, you have to point the HIVE client URL to the backend cluster by editing the .xml file, given below.
<service>
  <role>HIVE</role>  <url>http://<backend-master-internal-dns-name>:10000/cliservice</url>
</service>
  • After customizing the .xml file, save the file and close the editor. Furthermore, if you need more security while accessing Apache services and APIs via Apache Knox, you should configure the SSL/TLS certificate. You can also create a new proxy cluster for managing the requests and transactions of Apache Knox. For creating proxy clusters and configuring Apache Knox transaction files, you can follow this link.

Setting up Authorization

  • In this step, you have to configure the “user sync” configuration file for setting up authorization.
  • Now, execute the following command to connect to the master node of the backend cluster created before. 
export BACKEND_CLUSTER=backend-cluster
gcloud compute ssh --zone ${ZONE} ${BACKEND_CLUSTER}-m
  • Then, run the below-given command to edit the “user sync” file for customizing the properties.
sudo vi /etc/ranger/usersync/conf/ranger-ugsync-site.xml
  • In the “user sync” configuration file, edit the properties, as shown in the below image.
Tableau Hadoop | Setting up Authorization
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  • After customizing the “user sync” configuration file, save the file and close the editor. 

Setting up Ranger Admin Console 

In this step, you have to set up the Range Admin console to enable, monitor, and manage comprehensive data security across the Hadoop ecosystem while connecting with external or third-party applications.

  • Navigate to the Dataproc page in your cloud console and click on the previously created backend cluster. Then, click on “Web Interfaces” to find a list of Hadoop components that are actively running in your cluster. 
  • Now, click on Ranger from the Hadoop components list to open the Ranger console.
Tableau Hadoop | Setting up Ranger Admin COnsole
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  • In the Ranger console, you can find the service manager page, as shown above.
  • Now, click on the plus symbol near the HIVE service to create a new HIVE service.
  • Then, you are prompted to fill in the connection configuration information. Enter the configuration information, as given below. 
  1. Service name: ranger-hive-service-01
  2. Username: admin
  3. Password: admin-password 
  4. JDBC driver class name: org.apache.hive.jdbc.HiveDriver
  5. JDBC URL: jdbc:hive2:<backend-master-internal-dns-name>:10000/;transportMode=http;httpPath=cliservice
  • After filling in the necessary information, click on the “Add” button.

Connecting Tableau Hadoop

  • At this stage, you are all set for the Tableau Hadoop Connect to query Hadoop data from the Tableau workspace.
  • Initially, you have to create a firewall to open the TCP port for data transfer.
  • Execute the following command to open the TCP port 8443. 
gcloud compute firewall-rules create allow-knox
--project=${PROJECT_ID} --direction=INGRESS --priority=1000 
--network=default --action=ALLOW --rules=tcp:8443 
--target-tags=knox-gateway 
--source-ranges=<your-public-ip>/32
  • In the place of <your-public-ip>, enter the public IP address of your local machine. To find the public IP address of your local machine, follow this link.
  • Now, apply the firewall configuration to the master node of the proxy cluster by running the command given below.
gcloud compute instances add-tags ${PROXY_CLUSTER}-m --zone=${ZONE} 
--tags=knox-gateway
  • In the next step, download and install the Hive ODBC driver by following this link.
  • Now, open the Tableau Desktop and click on the “Connect” menu on the home page.
Tableau Hadoop | the last step for connection
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  • Click on the “More” option on the left pane and search for Cloudera Hadoop. On finding the Cloudera Hadoop, click on it.
  • The Cloudera Hadoop dialogue will pop up and prompt you to enter the server information. 
Tableau Hadoop | the last step for connection
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  • Enter the necessary server configuration details and click on the “Sign In” button.
  • Now, you are all set to query the Hadoop data by setting up the Tableau Hadoop Connect.  
  • After the Tableau Hadoop Connect is successful, in Tableau, go to the Data Source screen, and click on “Select Schema.” Then, search for the schema named “default.” 
  • On double-clicking the “default” schema, it will open the data table panel. 
  • Then, double click on the “New Custom SQL in the table panel.” Now, the “Edit Custom SQL” window opens, where you can run queries to fetch data from Hadoop.
  • Enter the following query in the “Edit Custom SQL” window to select the date and transaction type from the transactions table in Hadoop.
SELECT `submissiondate`,
       `transactiontype`
FROM `default`.`transactions`
  • After running the above command, the metadata for the transaction query is retrieved from Hive. Now, click on the “Update Now” button. 
Tableau Hadoop | the last step for connection
Image Source
  • As shown in the above image, you successfully fetched Hadoop data from the “transactions” table. Similarly, you can fetch any data from Hadoop by writing queries in Tableau Desktop; hence emphasizing the Tableau Hadoop connect works.

On following the above-given steps, you successfully established the Tableau Hadoop connect, fetching data from the Hadoop tables faster than before.

Conclusion

In this article, we learned about Tableau and Hadoop in brief. We also talked about the steps to establish the Tableau Hadoop connect.

This article mainly focused on setting up the Tableau Hadoop connect via Google Cloud Platform with several levels of the authentication process for attaining high security during data transfer. However, you can also use third-party connectors or drivers for the Tableau Hadoop Connect to perform end-to-end data transfer. Taking us to the point…

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Also, do let’s know about your experience of establishing the Tableau Hadoop Connect in the comment section below.

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