MariaDB to PostgreSQL: 3 Easy Methods

on CSV, Data Integration, Data Migration, Database Management Systems, MariaDB, PostgreSQL • July 27th, 2022 • Write for Hevo

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MariaDB is a popular Relational Database Management System used for eCommerce websites, Content Management Systems, logging applications, etc. However, other Datasbes such as PostgreSQL excels MariaDB in terms of performance. 

You can simply migrate from MariaDB to PostgreSQL manually using CSV files or open-source data migration tools like pgloader. You can also use third-party tools to eliminate the manual intervention & completely automate the process.

In this article, you will learn how to effectively connect MariaDB to PostgreSQL using 3 different methods.

Table of Contents

What is MariaDB?

MariaDB to Postgres - MariaDB Logo
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MariaDB Server is one of the most widely used open source relational databases. It was created by the original MySQL developer in 2009 in response to Oracle Corp’s acquisition of MySQL. MariaDB is SQL-based and supports ACID-style data processing that guarantees transactional atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability. 

Key Features of MariaDB

  • Free: As an open-source platform, the MariaDB server is available under the GPL license, version 2, and its client libraries for C, Java, and ODBC are distributed under the LGPL license, version 2.1 or higher.
  • InnoDB: Acting as a default storage engine for MariaDB, it provides your standard ACID-compliant transaction features and has support for foreign keys.
  • Galera Cluster: Based on synchronous replication, it offers high up-time, prevents loss of data, and better scalablity for growth.
  • Flexible: MariaDB is compatible with a number of operating systems and supports a wide variety of programming languages.

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What is PostgreSQL?

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PostgreSQL is an open-source Relational Database Management System that fully supports both SQL (Relational) and JSON (Non-relational) querying. Introduced on July 8, 1996, PostgreSQL is a direct successor to the Ignes database. Owing to its flexibility & scalability, PostgreSQL serves as a primary data store or Data Warehouse for many webs, mobile, geospatial, and analytics applications.

Key Features of PostgreSQL

  • Enhanced Data Integrity: PostgreSQL assures Data Integrity via Primary Keys, Foreign Keys, Explicit Locks, Advisory Locks, & Exclusion Constraints.
  • Multiple Data Types: It is compatible with several data types such as INTEGER, NUMERIC, BOOLEAN, CHAR, VARCHAR, DATE, INTERVAL, TIMESTAMP, etc.
  • Data Security: It provides different authentications such as Lightweight Directory Access Protocol(LDAP), Generic Security Service Application Program Interface (GSSAPI), SCRAM-SHA-256, Security Support Provider Interface (SSPI), etc. It also provides a robust Access Control System along with Column & Row-level security. 
  • Reliability: PostgreSQL provides a reliable environment with special features such as Multi-Version Concurrency Control (MVCC), point-in-time recovery, tablespaces, Asynchronous Replication, online/hot backups, and write-ahead logging. 

Why Connect MariaDB to PostgreSQL?

MariaDB is a popular RDBMS, though it has its drawbacks. Migrating from MariaDB to PostgreSQL allows you to leverage the following benefits:

  • PostgreSQL outperforms MariaDB in terms of reads and writes and is, therefore, more efficient.
  • You can use PostgreSQL Materialized views for expensive joins and aggregation that are frequently performed.
  • Using Partial Indexes, PostgreSQL allows an index for a subset of the data. This is especially useful for recently inserted or frequently queried data.
  • Offering better performance than MariDB’s query cache, PostgreSQL uses an internal cache and the server’s page cache for retrieving frequently accessed data.

How to Connect MariaDB to PostgreSQL?

To set up the MariaDB PostgreSQL connector, you can follow any of the 3 methods given below: 

Method 1: Automate MariaDB to PostgreSQL Connection using Hevo

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Hevo is a No-code Data Pipeline solution that can help you seamlessly replicate data in real-time from 150+ data sources(Including 40+ free sources) like MariaDB to Databases such as PostgreSQL, Data Warehouses, or a destination of your choice in a completely hassle-free & automated manner. 

Hevo is fully managed and completely automates the process of not only loading data from 150+ data sources such as MariaDB but also enriching the data and transforming it into an analysis-ready form without having to write a single line of code. Its fault-tolerant architecture ensures that the data is handled in a secure, consistent manner with zero data loss.

Using manual scripts and custom code to move data into the warehouse is cumbersome. Frequent breakages, pipeline errors, and lack of data flow monitoring make scaling such a system a nightmare. Hevo’s reliable data pipeline platform enables you to set up zero-code and zero-maintenance data pipelines that just work.

  • Reliability at Scale – With Hevo, you get a world-class fault-tolerant architecture that scales with zero data loss and low latency. 
  • Monitoring and Observability – Monitor pipeline health with intuitive dashboards that reveal every stat of pipeline and data flow. Bring real-time visibility into your ELT with Alerts and Activity Logs 
  • Stay in Total Control – When automation isn’t enough, Hevo offers flexibility – data ingestion modes, ingestion, and load frequency, JSON parsing, destination workbench, custom schema management, and much more – for you to have total control.    
  • Auto-Schema Management – Correcting improper schema after the data is loaded into your warehouse is challenging. Hevo automatically maps source schema with destination warehouse so that you don’t face the pain of schema errors.
  • 24×7 Customer Support – With Hevo you get more than just a platform, you get a partner for your pipelines. Discover peace with round-the-clock “Live Chat” within the platform. What’s more, you get 24×7 support even during the 14-day full-feature free trial.
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Without the need for manually extracting CSV files & uploading them to PostgreSQL, you can effortlessly replicate data from MariaDB to PostgresSQL using Hevo by following the simple steps given below:

  • Step 1: To replicate data from MariaDB to PostgresSQL, you can first configure MariaDB as a source by providing your MariaDB credentials such as your Database User and Password. You will also need to give the Database host, Port, and a unique name for this Pipeline. 
MariaDB to Postgres - MariaDB as a Source
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  • Step 2: For completing the process to replicate data from MariaDB to PostgresSQL, you can start by providing your PostgreSQL credentials such as your Database User and Password. You will also need to give Database Host, Port, schema & a unique name for this destination. 
MariaDB to Postgres - Postgres as a Destination
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This completes the No-Code & Automated method of connecting MariaDB to PostgreSQL using Hevo.

Method 2: Manually Replicate Tables from MariaDB to PostgreSQL using CSV files

Using a brute force approach to replicate tables one at a time, you can export your MariaDB tables as CSV files and then upload them to PostgreSQL. To get started with this manual MariaDB to PostgreSQL method, follow these steps;

  • Step 1: MariaDB accepts similar SQL commands to MySQL. Using the Into Outfile command, you can export your MariaDB table as a CSV file. For instance, consider exporting the “employee” table as an employees.csv file by running the following commands: 
select * from employee
INTO OUTFILE 'employees.csv'
FIELDS ENCLOSED BY '"'
TERMINATED BY ','
ESCAPED BY '"'
LINES TERMINATED BY '\n';
COPY employees(emp_id,first_name,last_name,dob,city)
FROM ‘C:employees.csv’
DELIMITER ‘,’
CSV HEADER;

By following the same procedure for other tables, you can easily replicate data from MariaDB to PostgreSQL. However, this can be a time-intensive task if the number of tables is huge.

Method 3: Manually Migrate from MariaDB to PostgreSQL using pgloader

Pgloader is an open-source tool that allows you to load data from databases like MySQL, SQLite & MS SQL Server to PostgreSQL. Though MariaDB offers additional features, it offers the same enterprise requirements as MySQL i.e software that supports MySQL is compatible with MariaDB. To get started with MariaDB to PostgreSQL Migration, follow these simple steps:

  • Step 1: You need to first update & upgrade the apt package in your instance.
apt update && apt upgrade -y
  • Step 2: Install pgloader for your MariaDB PostgreSQL Integration process.
apt install pgloader
  • Step 3: You can verify that installation is done successfully by checking the version of pgloader installed.
pgloader --version
  • Step 4: Assuming that you have created the desired PostgreSQL database in your instance, run the following command to start the MariaDB to PostgreSQL Integration process. 
pgloader mysql://mysqluser:password@<mysql-server>:<mysql-port>/<source-database> postgresql://<pgsql-role>:password@<pgsql_server>:<postgresql-port>/<target-database>

Here, you may face an error if pgloader is unable to effectively perform the data type conversion as you move from MariaDB to PostgreSQL. You can easily fix this by executing the cast modifier commands first and then Step 4. For instance,

pgloader --cast "type float to real drop typemod" \
--cast "type int to integer drop typemod" \
--cast "type bigint when (= 20 precision) to bigint drop typemod" \

Also, note that pgloader also performs data reformatting during the MariaDB to PostgreSQL transfer. For instance, the transformation of MySQL datestamps 0000-00-00 and 0000-00-00 00:00:00 to PostgreSQL NULL value. You need to keep this modification in mind while designing an application that uses this PostgreSQL database.   

This method allows you to only replicate data from MariaDB to PostgreSQL without any data transformation. For cases, where you need to update data every day or hour, this approach becomes exhausting. To remedy this, you can use cloud-based No-Code ETL tools like Hevo Data that completely automate the process in a matter of minutes.

Conclusion

In this article, you have learned about 3 different methods to effectively connect MariaDB to PostgreSQL. If you know SQL and only need a few tables to replicate from MariaDB to PostgreSQL without any data cleaning, you can use the CSV files method. If you need to perform a one-time database replication with no transformation, you can try the open-source tool pgloader. However, if you require to frequently replicate data with complex data transformations & standardization, then Hevo is the right choice for you! 

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Hevo Data, a No-code Data Pipeline can replicate Data in Real-Time from a vast sea of 150+ sources like MariaDB to Databases like PostgreSQL, Data Warehouses, or a Destination of your choice. It is a reliable, completely automated, and secure service that doesn’t require you to write any code!  

If you are using databases like MariaDB & PostgreSQL and searching for a seamless alternative to Manual Data Integration, then Hevo can effortlessly automate this for you. Hevo’s strong integration with 150+ Connectors (Including 40+ Free Sources), allows you to export, load, transform & enrich your data to make it analysis-ready.

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Share your experience of setting up MariaDB Postgres Integration! Let us know in the comments section below!

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